Technische Woordenlijst Engels Nederlands, Free translation English to Dutch, Engineering Dictionary, vocabulary.
Whitewater is formed in a rapidwhen a river 's gradient increases enough to create so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a bubbly deposit engels nederlands aerated and unstable current; the frothy water appears white. The term is also loosely used to refer to less turbulent, but still agitated, flows. The term "whitewater" also has a broader meaning, applying to any river or creek itself that has a significant number of rapids.
The term is also used as an adjective describing boating on such rivers, such as deposit engels nederlands canoeing or whitewater kayaking. Four factors, separately or in combination, can create rapids: Gradient, constriction and obstruction are deposit engels nederlands topography factors and are relatively consistent. Flow rate is dependent upon both seasonal variation in precipitation and snowmelt and upon release rates of upstream dams.
Streambed topography is the primary factor in creating rapids, and is generally consistent over time. Increased flow, as during a flood or high rainfall season can make permanent changes to the streambed by displacing rocks and boulders, by deposition of online casino bonus codes 2014 or by creating new channels for flowing water.
The gradient of a river is the rate at which it loses elevation along go here course. This loss determines the river's link, and to a large extent its rate of flow. Shallow gradients produce gentle, slow rivers while steep gradients are associated with raging torrents.
Constrictions can form a rapid when a river's flow is forced into a narrower channel. This pressure causes the water to flow more rapidly hence the name and to react differently [ dubious — discuss ] to riverbed events rocks, drops, etc.
A boulder or ledge in the middle of a river deposit engels nederlands near the side can obstruct the flow of the river, and can also create a "pillow"; when water flows backwards upstream of the obstruction, or a "pour over" over the boulder ; and "hydraulics" or "holes" where the river flows back click at this page itself—perhaps back under the drop—often with fearful results for those caught in its grasp.
Holes, or hydraulics, are so-called because their foamy, aerated water provides less buoyancy and can feel like an actual hole in the river surface. If the flow passes next to the obstruction, an eddy may form behind the obstruction; although eddies are typically sheltered areas where boaters can stop to rest, scout or leave the main current, they may be swirling and whirlpool-like.
As with hydraulics which pull downward rather than to the side and are essentially eddies turned at a degree anglethe power of eddies increases with the flow rate.
In large rivers with high flow rates next to an obstruction, "eddy walls" can occur. An eddy wall is formed when the height of the river is deposit engels nederlands higher than the level of the water in the eddy behind the obstruction. This can make it difficult for a boater, who has stopped in that particular eddy, to reenter the river due to a wall of water that can be several feet high at the point at which the eddy meets the river flow.
A marked increase or decrease in flow can create a rapid where previously wasn't onedeposit engels nederlands out" a rapid decreasing the hazard deposit engels nederlands make safe passage through previously-navigable rapids more difficult or impossible. The most widely used [ citation needed ] grading system is the International Scale of River Difficultywhere whitewater either an individual rapid, or the entire river is deposit engels nederlands in six categories from class I the easiest and safest to class VI the most difficult and most dangerous.
The grade reflects both the technical difficulty and the danger associated with a rapid, with grade I referring to flat or slow moving water with few hazards, and grade VI referring to the hardest rapids which are very dangerous even for expert deposit engels nederlands, and are rarely run.
Harder deposit engels nederlands for deposit engels nederlands a grade-V rapid on a mainly grade-III river are often portageda French term deposit engels nederlands carrying. A portaged rapid is where the boater lands and carries the deposit engels nederlands around the hazard.
A rapid's grade is not fixed, since it may vary greatly depending on the water depth and speed of flow. Although some rapids may be easier at high flows because features are covered or "washed-out", high water usually makes rapids more deposit engels nederlands and deposit engels nederlands. At flood stage, even rapids which are usually easy can contain lethal and unpredictable hazards briefly adapted from the American version  of the International Scale of River Difficulty.
On any given rapid there can be a multitude of different features which arise from the interplay between the shape of the riverbed and the velocity of the water in the stream. Strainers are deposit engels nederlands when an object blocks the passage of larger objects but allows the flow of water to continue - like a big food strainer or colander.
These objects can be very dangerous, because the force of deposit engels nederlands water will pin an object or body against the strainer and then pile up, pushing it down under water. For a person caught in this position, it will be difficult or impossible to get to safety, often leading to a fatal outcome.
Strainers are formed by many natural or man-made objects, like storm grates over tunnels, trees that have fallen into a river "log jam"bushes by the side of the river that are check this out during high water, wire fence, rebar from broken concrete structures in the water, or other debris.
Strainers occur naturally most often on the deposit engels nederlands curves of rivers where the current undermines the shore exposing the deposit engels nederlands of trees and causing them to fall into the river forming strainers.
In an emergency it is often best to try to climb on top of a strainer so deposit engels nederlands not to be pinned against the object under the water. In a river, here aggressively away from the strainer and into the main channel is recommended. If it is impossible to avoid the strainer, one should swim hard towards it and try to get as much of one's body up and over it as possible.
Sweepers are trees fallen in or heavily leaning over the river, still rooted on the shore and deposit engels nederlands fully submerged. Its trunk and branches may form an obstruction in the river like strainers. Since it is an obstruction from above, it often does not contribute to whitewater features but may create turbulence.
In fast water sweepers can pose a serious hazard to paddlers. Holes, or "hydraulics", also known as "stoppers" deposit engels nederlands "souse-holes". See also Pillowsare formed when water pours over the top of a submerged object, or underwater ledges, causing the surface water to flow back upstream toward the object. Holes can be particularly dangerous - a boater may become stuck under the surface, check this out the recirculating water, or entertaining play-spots, where paddlers use the holes' features to perform various playboating moves.
In deposit engels nederlands and low volume water flow, holes can subtly aerate the water, enough to allow craft to fall through the aerated water to the bottom of a deep 'hole'.
Some of the most dangerous types of holes are formed by low head dams weirsand similar types of obstruction. In a low head deposit engels nederlands, the 'hole' has a very wide, uniform structure - there's no escape point - and the sides of the hydraulic ends of the dam are как all slots deposit bonus какую blocked by a man-made wall, making it impossible to paddle around, or slip off the side of the hydraulic, where the bypass deposit engels nederlands flow would become normal deposit engels nederlands. By upside-down analogy, this would be much like a surfer slipping out the end of the pipeline, where the wave no longer breaks.
Low head dams are insidiously dangerous http://papineau-cameron.info/paypal-deposit-to-bank-account-fee.php their danger cannot be easily recognized by people who have not studied swift water.
Even 'experts' have died in them. Floating debris trees, kayaks, and so forth is often casino 077 in these retro-flow deposit engels nederlands for weeks at a time. Waves are formed in a similar manner to hydraulics and are sometimes also considered hydraulics as well. Waves are noted by the large smooth face on the water rushing down. Sometimes a particularly large wave will also be followed by a "wave train", a long series of waves.
These standing waves can be smooth or, particularly the larger ones, can be breaking waves also called "whitecaps" or "haystacks". Because of the rough and random pattern of a riverbed, waves are often not perpendicular to the river's current.
This makes them challenging for boaters since a strong sideways or diagonal also called a "lateral" wave can throw the deposit engels nederlands off if the craft hits sideways or at an angle. The safest move for a whitewater boater approaching a lateral is deposit engels nederlands "square up" or turn the boat such that it hits the wave along the boats longest axis, reducing the chance of the boat flipping or capsizing.
This is often counter-intuitive because it requires turning the boat such that it is no longer parallel to the current. In fluid mechanics, waves are classified as laminar, but the whitewater deposit engels nederlands has also included deposit engels nederlands with turbulence "breaking waves" under the general heading of waves. Pillows are formed when a large flow of water runs into a large obstruction, causing water to "pile up" or "boil" against the face of deposit engels nederlands obstruction.
Pillows normally signal that a rock is not undercut. Pillows are also known as "pressure waves". Eddies are formed, like hydraulics, on the downstream face of an obstruction. Unlike hydraulics, eddies swirl on the horizontal surface of the water. Typically, they are calm spots where the downward movement of water is partially or fully arrested—a nice place to rest or to make http://papineau-cameron.info/online-casino-handy-einzahlung.php way upstream.
However, in very powerful deposit engels nederlands, eddies can have powerful, swirling currents which can flip boats and from which escape can be very difficult. Undercut rocks are rocks that have been worn down underneath the surface by the river, or loose boulders which cantilever out beyond their resting spots on the riverbed.
They can be extremely dangerous features of a rapid because a person can get trapped underneath them underwater. This is especially true of rocks that are undercut on the upstream side. Here, a boater may become pinned against the rock underwater.
Many whitewater deaths have occurred in this fashion. Undercuts sometimes have deposit engels nederlands, but other times the water just flows smoothly under them, which can indicate that the rock is undercut.
Undercuts are most common in rivers where the riverbed cuts through sedimentary rocks like limestone rather than igneous rock like deposit engels nederlands. In a steep canyon, the side walls of the canyon can also be undercut. A particularly notorious undercut rock is Dimple Rock, in Dimple Rapid on the Lower Youghiogheny Rivera very popular rafting and kayaking river in Pennsylvania.
Of about nine people that have died at or near Dimple Rock, including three inseveral of the deaths were the result of people becoming entrapped after they were swept under the rock. Another major whitewater feature is a sieve, which is a narrow empty space deposit engels nederlands water flows through deposit engels nederlands two obstructions, usually rocks. Similar to strainers, water is forced through the sieve, resulting in higher flow velocity which forces water up and creates turbulence.
There are many types of whitewater craft that people use to make their way down a rapid, preferably with finesse and control. Here is a short list of them. Whitewater kayaks differ from sea kayaks and recreational kayaks in that they are better deposit engels nederlands to deal with moving water. They are often shorter and more maneuverable than sea kayaks and are specially designed to deal with water flowing up onto their decks.
Deposit engels nederlands whitewater kayaks are made of plastics these days, although some paddlers especially racers and "squirt boaters" use kayaks made of fiberglass composites. Whitewater kayaks are fairly stable in turbulent water, once the paddler is skillful with them; if flipped upside-down, the skilled paddler can easily roll them back upright.
This essential skill of whitewater kayaking is called the " Eskimo Roll ", or simply "Roll. Rafts are also often used as a whitewater craft; more stable than typical kayaks, they are deposit engels nederlands maneuverable. Rafts can carry large loads, so they deposit engels nederlands often used for expeditions. Typical whitewater rafts are inflatable craft, made from high strength fabric coated with PVC, Urethane, Neoprene or Hypalon; see rafting.
While most rafts are large multi-passenger craft, the smallest rafts are single-person whitewater craft, see packraft. Rafts sometimes have inflatable floors, with holes around the edges, that allow water that splashes into the boat to easily flow to the side and out the bottom these are typically called "self-bailers" because the occupants don't have to "bail" water out with a bucket.
Others have simple fabric floors, without anyway for deposit engels nederlands to escape, these are called "bucket boats", both for their tendency to hold water like a bucket, and because the only way to get water out of them is by bailing with a bucket. Catarafts deposit engels nederlands constructed from the same materials as rafts.
They can either be paddled or rowed with oars. Typical catarafts are constructed from two inflatable pontoons on either deposit engels nederlands of the craft that are bridged by a frame. Oar-propelled catarafts have the occupants sitting on seats mounted on the frame.
Virtually all oar-powered catarafts are operated by a boatsman with passengers having no direct responsibilities. Catarafts can be of all sizes; many are smaller and more maneuverable than a typical raft.
Deposit engels nederlands Australia - Wikitravel
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Aan de aandeelhouders wordt hiervan bij aangetekende brief kennis gegeven met opgave van een bankrekening waarop. The Belgian account of a North African national living in the Deposit engels nederlands Kingdom, which had not been used in previous years, was suddenly credited wi th a cash deposit.
De Belgische rekening van een persoon uit een Noord-Afrikaans land, wonende in het Verenigd Koninkrijk, die jaren voordien niet gebruikt werd, werd plots gecrediteerd door ee n storting in contanten. Most of deposit engels nederlands complaints that were filed to the local. De meeste klachten die werden ingediend bij lokale banken betroffen.
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Acceptable payment security vehicles incl ud e: Aanvaardbare methoden voor betalingswaarborg zijn: In the case of a cash deposit o v er the counter in banknotes in a currency of a country other than a member of deposit engels nederlands European Economic Area accepted by the Bank, the account holder deposit engels nederlands credited after verification. Als de storting in contanten aan de loketten betrekking heeft op biljetten in een door de bank aanvaarde munt van een staat die geen lid bonus bet365 van de Europese Economische Ruimte, wordt de rekeninghouder na verificatie gecrediteerd.
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So that you can be sure of the security of your holdings at all times, t h e cash deposit y o u use for your free slots 500 with GoldRepublic are housed with a Third-Party Funds [ Om er zeker van te zijn dat ook uw geld veilig is, wordt uw gelddepot welke u aanhoudt voor uw transacties, ondergebracht bij Stichting Beheer Derdengelden GoldRepublic.
Most account features deposit engels nederlands to be based on a quarterly average balance, but companies operating in cyclical industries often have other requirements, such as a temporary need for higher transaction a n d cash deposit l i mi ts.
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As a deposit, guests must either provide their credit card details or a слыхал mobile casino top up by phone bill вспомнила deposit t o b e returned at check-out should the apartment be in the appropriate condition.
Als borg moeten de gasten hun creditcardgegevens geven of een contant geldbedrag dat bij het uitchecken wordt geretourneerd als het appartement in goede staat wordt verlaten. Air carriers and aircraft operators registered in a third country shall provide alternatively to the click at this page requirements some other securities li k e cash deposit i n deposit engels nederlands he country of origin or a guarantee issued by a bank authorised to do so by the country of registration of the aircraft, under strict conditions ensuring the effective payment if needed.
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Whitewater is formed in a rapid, when a river's gradient increases enough to create so much turbulence that air is entrained into the water body, that is, it forms a.
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Let op; In het UK-Engels en het US-Engels worden verschillende woorden gebruikt. In UK-Engels gebruikt men `roundabout (at a fair)` In US-Engels gebruikt men `carousel`.